Risk Assessments for 2017 Expeditions

If you’d like to download a full copy of our Risk Assessments for the 2017 programs please click here.

Our on-program activities do carry some risks, as do most ventures involving the sea. These risks will be increased if you do not follow your basic training, listen to the staff member present or follow pre-set procedures. Volunteers must hold Love The Oceans and their staff harmless in the event of any injury or damage whatsoever, whether to body or property, that may arise in the field.

Below are various Risk Assessments for different ventures. If the risks for any of the hazards in the tables are deemed to be high, work must not proceed until further controls are put in place.

  1. GENERAL ACTITIES RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT
Identification of reasonable foreseeable hazards Identification of reasonably foreseeable hazards
What are the hazards? What are you already doing? Severity 1-5 Likelihood 1-5 Residual Risk Further Controls Required?

 

Diseases such as Hep A & B, Typhoid, Teatus, Tuberculosis, Malaria All vaccines and preventative medications advised and taken malaria nets used every night while sleeping 4 1 LOW NO
Bitten by a rabid animal Vaccines recommended and caution avoidance taken 4 2 LOW NO
Bitten/Infected by a poisonous/venomous animal Caution taken, medical and evacuation plan known by all Love The Oceans ground staff. Appropriate clothing and footwear worn at all times. 5 1 LOW NO
Food/Water poisoning Caution taken, all food prepared in a safe, clean environment, water supply monitored 5 1 MEDIUM NO
Cuts and Infection Caution taken, appropriate first aid kit present and knowledge of where to access appropriate medicines. Appropriate clothing and footwear worn at all times. 3 3 MEDIUM NO
Allergies and Asthma Appropriate first aid kit present and knowledge of where to access appropriate medicines 3 2 LOW NO
Criminal Activity Caution taken, taken in at least groups of two at all times and mobile phones always carried 3 1 LOW NO
Illness Knowledge of where to access medical attention and help 2 4 MEDIUM NO
Travel Fatigue Awareness of the possibility, action taken if noticed and rest allowed. All volunteers arrive the weekend before the program starts so have time to relax 1 4 LOW NO
Depression/Home Sickness Awareness of the possibility, comfort provided when needed 1 3 LOW NO
Sun burn/ Heat stroke Caution taken, protective clothing, sun cream and sufficient drinking water supplied 3 3 MEDIUM NO
Driving in vehicle Only qualified personnel driving, all laws and regulations followed 4 2 MEDIUM NO
Drowning Caution taken, always swim in pairs, people always observing them on land, stay between Guinjata Dive Centre and Jeffs Dive Centre 4 2 MEDIUM NO
Tripping/Falling Caution taken, appropriate footwear worn at all times 1 4 LOW NO
Getting lost Always travel in groups of at least two, mobile phones carried at all times, guidance given and familiarity gained at the start of the trip 1 3 LOW NO
Terrorist target Love The Oceans’ sites or volunteers/staff get caught up in a general terrorist attack Site Manager and Love The Oceans’ management team to monitor political stability both nationally and locally throughout the course of the season. Expeditioners to be advised to exercise caution if travelling to North Mozambique or other populated centres before or after their expedition. 5 1 LOW NO
Volunteers attacked on site The site has been previously assessed by Love The Oceans and is deemed acceptable. There is a 24hr guard on site and lockable doors 4 1 LOW NO
Control measures not implemented Site Manager is responsible for auditing the control measures on a regular basis. These audit reports including details of non-compliances and corrective measures to be available for inspection on site 4 1 LOW NO

 

  1. TRANSFER BASED RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT

2.1 Guinjata/Inhambane/Paindane

Identification of reasonable foreseeable hazards Identification of reasonably foreseeable hazards
What are the hazards? What are you already doing? Severity 1-5 Likelihood 1-5 Residual Risk Further Controls Required?

 

Road accident – driver Only allow people who hold a relevant driving qualification to drive you anywhere (including on the beach). DO NOT enter the vehicle if unsure. Only get into a vehicle if a Love The Oceans Staff has deemed it safe to do so. 4 2 MEDIUM NO
Road accident – drunk driver NEVER enter a vehicle if you suspect the driver has been drinking. Only get into a vehicle if a Love The Oceans Staff has deemed it safe to do so 4 2 MEDIUM NO
Road accident – passengers Passengers to be sitting in seats with seat belts fastened (where applicable) when the vehicle is in motion. Young people must not distract the driver when the vehicle is in motion. Exits must not be blocked with luggage or equipment

 

3 2 LOW NO
Road accident If accident is not serious– remain in vehicle if safe to do so. If not move, as a group, to a safe location away from oncoming traffic.

If accident serious– move those able to walk away from the scene of the accident keeping them and yourself safe throughout.

Love The Oceans Staff will direct

4 2 MEDIUM NO
Mechanical breakdown Remain in vehicle if safe to do so. If not move, as a group, to a safe location away from oncoming traffic. Love The Oceans Staff will direct. All vehicles are inspected on a regular basis and must meet UK law on vehicle safety 4 1 LOW NO
Student Lost Staff will take head count on a regular basis especially when students leave and re-board transport. If you notice someone is missing let staff know imminently 3 2 LOW NO
Travel Sickness Relevant medication to be taken before traveling 1 2 LOW NO
Theft Expeditioners told to look after their belongings and not to leave them unattended. All cars are fitted with locks. Valuable should not be left in clear view 1 3 LOW NO

 

 

 

2.2 Maxixe Ferry Transfer

Identification of reasonable foreseeable hazards Identification of reasonably foreseeable hazards
What are the hazards? What are you already doing? Severity 1-5 Likelihood 1-5 Residual Risk Further Controls Required?

 

Water accident – driver Only allow people who hold a relevant water ferry qualification to drive you anywhere (including on the beach). DO NOT enter the ferry if unsure. Only get into a ferry if a Love The Oceans Staff has deemed it safe to do so. 4 2 MEDIUM NO
Water accident – passengers Passengers to be sitting in seats when the ferry is in motion. Young people must not distract the driver when the vehicle is in motion. Exits must not be blocked with luggage or equipment 3 2 LOW NO
Water accident If accident is not serious– remain in ferry if safe to do so.

If accident serious– put on life jackets, take off heavy items of clothing and leave belongings on the boat, exit boat onto another nearby one if possible or enter the water and wait for assistance.

Love The Oceans Staff will direct.

Vessel only travels in daylight hours (travel time approximately 30mins). LTO will check the forecast wind and river conditions prior to travel. All crossings will be done with a LTO staff member present

4 2 MEDIUM NO
Mechanical breakdown Remain in ferry if safe to do so. Wait for assistance. Love The Oceans Staff will direct 4 1 LOW NO
Student Lost Staff will take head count on a regular basis especially when students leave and re-board transport. If you notice someone is missing let staff know imminently 3 2 LOW NO
Travel Sickness Relevant medication to be taken before traveling 1 2 LOW NO
Theft Expeditioners told to look after their belongings and not to leave them unattended. Also to be warned about pickpockets. 1 3 LOW NO

 

2.3 Road Travel to Maputo

Identification of reasonable foreseeable hazards Identification of reasonably foreseeable hazards
What are the hazards? What are you already doing? Severity 1-5 Likelihood 1-5 Residual Risk Further Controls Required?

 

Road accident – driver Only allow people who hold a relevant driving qualification to drive you anywhere (including on the beach). DO NOT enter the vehicle if unsure. Only get into the vehicle if a Love The Oceans Staff has deemed it safe to do so.

Due to the long trip (appriox 6 – 8 hrs) there will be 2 drivers present to swap over when one feels fatigued. The vehicle for this transfer has been inspected by Love The Oceans staff and deemed safe. The LTO staff member present will also inspect the vehicle and sign it off as safe if it meets our standards before departure

4 2 MEDIUM NO
Road accident – drunk driver NEVER enter a vehicle if you suspect the driver has been drinking. Only get into a vehicle if a Love The Oceans Staff has deemed it safe to do so. The staff member present may stop volunteers entering a vehicle with an inebriated driver which may result in the cancellation of that activity if no alternative transport or driver is available. 4 2 MEDIUM NO
Road accident – passengers Passengers to be sitting in seats with seat belts fastened (where applicable) when the vehicle is in motion. Young people must not distract the driver when the vehicle is in motion. Exits must not be blocked with luggage or equipment

 

3 2 LOW NO
Road accident If accident is not serious– remain in vehicle if safe to do so. If not move, as a group, to a safe location away from oncoming traffic.

If accident serious– move those able to walk away from the scene of the accident keeping them and yourself safe throughout.

Love The Oceans Staff will direct

4 2 MEDIUM NO
Mechanical breakdown Remain in vehicle if safe to do so. If not move, as a group, to a safe location away from oncoming traffic. Love The Oceans Staff will direct. 4 1 LOW NO
Student Lost Staff will take head count on a regular basis especially when students leave and re-board transport. If you notice someone is missing let staff know imminently 3 2 LOW NO
Travel Sickness Relevant medication to be taken before traveling 1 2 LOW NO
Theft Expeditioners told to look after their belongings and not to leave them unattended. All cars are fitted with locks. Valuable should not be left in clear view 1 3 LOW NO

 

2.4 Road Travel from Maputo to Ku Sungula

Identification of reasonable foreseeable hazards Identification of reasonably foreseeable hazards
What are the hazards? What are you already doing? Severity 1-5 Likelihood 1-5 Residual Risk Further Controls Required?

 

Road accident – driver Only allow people who hold a relevant driving qualification to drive you anywhere (including on the beach). DO NOT enter the vehicle if unsure. Only get into the vehicle if a Love The Oceans Staff has deemed it safe to do so.

The vehicle for this transfer meets Sable Tours and/or Origineil Logistics (Pty) safety standards, has gone through a roadworthy test and is deemed safe by LTO standards.

4 2 MEDIUM NO
Road accident – drunk driver NEVER enter a vehicle if you suspect the driver has been drinking. Only get into a vehicle if a Love The Oceans Staff has deemed it safe to do so. The staff member present may stop volunteers entering a vehicle with an inebriated driver which may result in the cancellation of that activity if no alternative transport or driver is available. 4 2 MEDIUM NO
Road accident – passengers Passengers to be sitting in seats with seat belts fastened (where applicable) when the vehicle is in motion. Young people must not distract the driver when the vehicle is in motion. Exits must not be blocked with luggage or equipment

 

3 2 LOW NO
Road accident If accident is not serious– remain in vehicle if safe to do so. If not move, as a group, to a safe location away from oncoming traffic.

If accident serious– move those able to walk away from the scene of the accident keeping them and yourself safe throughout.

Love The Oceans Staff will direct

4 2 MEDIUM NO
Mechanical breakdown Remain in vehicle if safe to do so. If not move, as a group, to a safe location away from oncoming traffic. Love The Oceans Staff will direct. All vehicles are inspected on a regular basis and must pass an annual roadworthy test to be used 4 1 LOW NO
Student Lost Staff will take head count on a regular basis especially when students leave and re-board transport. If you notice someone is missing let staff know imminently 3 2 LOW NO
Travel Sickness Relevant medication to be taken before traveling 1 2 LOW NO
Theft Expeditioners told to look after their belongings and not to leave them unattended. All cars are fitted with locks. Valuable should not be left in clear view 1 3 LOW NO

 

2.5 Road Travel Ku Sungula to Johannesburg Airport

Identification of reasonable foreseeable hazards Identification of reasonably foreseeable hazards
What are the hazards? What are you already doing? Severity 1-5 Likelihood 1-5 Residual Risk Further Controls Required?

 

Road accident – driver Only allow people who hold a relevant driving qualification to drive you anywhere (including on the beach). DO NOT enter the vehicle if unsure. Only get into the vehicle if a Love The Oceans Staff has deemed it safe to do so. 4 2 MEDIUM NO
Road accident – drunk driver NEVER enter a vehicle if you suspect the driver has been drinking. Only get into a vehicle if a Love The Oceans Staff has deemed it safe to do so. The staff member present may stop volunteers entering a vehicle with an inebriated driver which may result in the cancellation of that activity if no alternative transport or driver is available. 4 2 MEDIUM NO
Road accident – passengers Passengers to be sitting in seats with seat belts fastened (where applicable) when the vehicle is in motion. Young people must not distract the driver when the vehicle is in motion. Exits must not be blocked with luggage or equipment

 

3 2 LOW NO
Road accident If accident is not serious– remain in vehicle if safe to do so. If not move, as a group, to a safe location away from oncoming traffic.

If accident serious– move those able to walk away from the scene of the accident keeping them and yourself safe throughout.

Love The Oceans Staff will direct

4 2 MEDIUM NO
Mechanical breakdown Remain in vehicle if safe to do so. If not move, as a group, to a safe location away from oncoming traffic. Love The Oceans Staff will direct. 4 1 LOW NO
Student Lost Staff will take head count on a regular basis especially when students leave and re-board transport. If you notice someone is missing let staff know imminently 3 2 LOW NO
Travel Sickness Relevant medication to be taken before traveling 1 2 LOW NO
Theft Expeditioners told to look after their belongings and not to leave them unattended. All cars are fitted with locks. Valuable should not be left in clear view 1 3 LOW NO

 

 

 

 

 

2.6 Air Travel

Identification of reasonable foreseeable hazards Identification of reasonably foreseeable hazards
What are the hazards? What are you already doing? Severity 1-5 Likelihood 1-5 Residual Risk Further Controls Required?

 

A plane carrying Love The Oceans’ volunteers or staff has a serious accident Love The Oceans will only recommend expeditioners to travel with airlines with very good safety records. However, it is ultimately up to the expeditioner to ensure their mode of transport to/from site is safe as Love The Oceans is not responsible for booking participants on flights 5 1 LOW NO
Control measures not implemented Love The Oceans’ senior management to be responsible for auditing the control measures on a regular basis. These audit reports including details of non-compliances and corrective measures to be available for inspection on site 5 1 LOW NO

 

2.7 Travel to/from fisheries sites by car or by foot

Identification of reasonable foreseeable hazards Identification of reasonably foreseeable hazards
What are the hazards? What are you already doing? Severity 1-5 Likelihood 1-5 Residual Risk Further Controls Required?

 

Exposure to cold and wet conditions Work will only be conducted in suitable and safe weather conditions, limiting exposure to hazardous conditions. Appropriate clothing will be work if needed 2 2 LOW NO
Exposure to warm and hot conditions Work will only be conducted in suitable and safe weather conditions, limiting exposure to hazardous conditions. Water and sun protections such as sun cream and hats will be worn, Sufficient water will be carried on all journeys 2 4 MEDIUM NO
Trips/falls/slips Advise sensible footwear at all times and caution taken 1 4 LOW NO
Criminal Offences Caution taken, travel in at least groups of two at all times and mobile phones always carried 3 1 LOW NO
Car accidents Care taken, all laws followed 4 1 LOW NO

 

 

 

 

 

  1. ON-PROGRAM ACTIVITIES RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT

3.1 Dive Preparation and boats to dive sites

Identification of reasonable foreseeable hazards Identification of reasonably foreseeable hazards
What are the hazards? What are you already doing? Severity 1-5 Likelihood 1-5 Residual Risk Further Controls Required?

 

Accident at sea resulting

in the vessel sinking or

capsizing

On course dives will only be launched in daylight hours. If an optional night dive is undertaken by volunteers the appropriate dive centre staff will be present as per PADI protocol and at least one Love The Oceans staff member.

LTO will check the forecast wind and sea conditions prior to the boat launching and if conditions are considered unsuitable will prevent the group from departing keeping the volunteers in Guinjata.

Either a Guinjata Dive Centre staff member and/or a Love The Oceans staff member will be present on the boat at all times and there will be radio access from every boat to the site.

A full briefing will be conducted by the accompanying staff member prior to departure identifying the safety features and emergency procedures on the boat and on the dive

The weather will be monitored and if the swell reaches over 2.5m then an outing will not be made

4 1 LOW NO
Passengers suffering

sunburn, dehydration

or heat-stroke

Drinking water will be provided for all journeys.

The accompanying staff member will remind all volunteers to use sunblock and wear hats and to drink regularly during the trip

3 4 MEDIUM NO
Slipping or falling on deck or falling

overboard

Passengers to be fully briefed on the safety procedures and equipment as well as the out-of-bounds areas of the boat.

There are footstraps in the floor of the boat passengers must put their feet under and sit down when the boat is moving. There are also ropes for passengers to hold onto. Follow the instruction of the relevant Guinjata Dive Centre or Love The Oceans staff

3 1 LOW NO
Seasickness Passengers that suffer from motion sickness advised to bring relevant medication. 1 3 LOW NO
Control measures not implemented Site Manager to be responsible for auditing the control measures on a regular basis. These audit reports including details of non-compliances and corrective measures to be available for inspection on site 4 1 LOW NO
Tanks falling over Ensure all staff and volunteers are instructed to tie up tanks to central reservation at all times when they are not holding the tank 3 2 LOW NO
Pressure gauge relief valve bursting Ensure all staff and volunteers make sure they turn their cylinder valves slowly facing the gauge away from them 4 1 LOW NO
Dropping weight belts on feet Ensure all staff and volunteers are instructed to be careful when carrying weight belts and to lay them down at their feet whilst kitting up. Ensure all staff and volunteers make sure that their weight belt clips are secure 2 2 LOW NO
Falling over whilst kitted up before or after the dive Make sure all staff and volunteers hand equipment to boat handlers with care and make sure it is secure in the boat. Staff and volunteers should take care when getting into and out of dive boats in the boat bay to avoid falling or slipping 4 2 MEDIUM NO
Falling out of the dive boat whilst going to dive sites Ensure all staff and volunteers are instructed not to wear weight belts on dive boats and stay seated at all times. Staff and volunteers must sit evenly on each side of the boat and hold onto the ropes provided and hook their feet under the feet straps provided 4 1 LOW NO
Slipping over on dive boat Ensure all staff and volunteers are instructed to move around the boat carefully snd holding onto the side when necessary whilst kitting up for a dive. No-one should move around whilst the boat is in motion 4 1 LOW NO
Hitting head when backwards rolling into water at the dive sites or someone falling on top of them Ensure staff and volunteers are briefed on deployment protocol and fall back on 3. Anyone who does not roll back then must wait until the boat captain decides it is safe again for them to do so. Divers must check behind them before rolling back. Ensure divers enter the water in an agreed manner so the boat is not unbalanced. Ensure divers are aware of the possibility of the boat hitting their head when hanging onto the mooring ropes and are cautious when ascending to avoid hitting their heads on the boat or propellers as they surface. 4 1 LOW NO
Hitting head on propellers after entering the water or on ascent, or coming in contact with the propellers at the launching of the boat Ensure staff and volunteers are aware of the dangers of the propellers and stay well away from them at all times. Divers should be cautious ascending so as not to hit their head when they surface. On entering the water the divers must roll back and immediately swim away from the boat to ensure they do not come in contact with them 4 1 LOW NO
Control measures not implemented Sight Manager to be responsible for auditing the control measures on a regular basis. These audit reports must include details of non-compliances and corrective measures to be available for inspection on site 3 1 LOW NO

 

3.2 Diving

Identification of reasonable foreseeable hazards Identification of reasonably foreseeable hazards
What are the hazards? What are you already doing? Severity 1-5 Likelihood 1-5 Residual Risk Further Controls Required?

 

Decompression Sickness Ensure all diving procedures are followed completely. Limit dives to 3 shallow ones per day, minimum 2 hour surface interval, maximum depth 18m for survey dives and maximum 30m for recreational deep dives. Only one deep dive a day allowed even on weekends and only for advanced divers or divers doing their advanced qualification. Maximum dive time of 50 minutes with a 5 minute stop at 5m before surfacing.

Ensure that the dive procedures are audited every season. Ensure that all boats carry oxygen supplies and that there are sufficient oxygen supplies in Guinjata to continue treating the patient throughout the period of evacuation. Ensure that there is a qualified staff member who can administer oxygen. Ensure evacuation plans are in position for getting patient to recompression facilities and that all relevant staff are aware of procedures

5 1 LOW NO
Being hit by the boat on surfacing Surface slowly with arm raised and slowly turning to check for risks 5 1 LOW NO
Being left in the water at the end of a dive Ensure all dive boat leaders operate the boat roster system for each dive. Ensure that the dive safety procedures are audited every season. Ensure that the boat roster is completed every dive 3 1 LOW NO
Becoming separated from buddy Ensure all staff and volunteers are trained in the lost diver procedure and briefed accordingly 2 1 LOW NO
Being carried away to greater depths by down currents Ensure the Dive Leader checks the conditions on the day before the group enter the water. If the currents are too strong, a Guinjata Dive Centre staff member will call off the dive. 4 1 LOW NO
Barotraumas All staff and volunteers informed of risk of barotraumas when diving and the safe equalisation procedure, which includes aborting the dive if equalisation is not possible. All staff and volunteers to be informed that they should not dive with an upper respiratory tract infection. All staff and volunteers to be informed of the dangers of using decongestants when diving. Ensure all volunteers and staff are informed of the serious danger of breath holding whilst scuba diving 3 2 MEDIUM NO
Injuries from dangerous marine animals Ensure that all staff and volunteers are trained in the identification of all marine species likely to be encountered that can cause injury by having a Dangerous Organisms lecture before they do their first dives on Love The Oceans’ programs. Ensure that all divers are instructed never to touch the coral or any organism and do not cause an aggressive response from any marine creature by approaching too closely 4 1 LOW NO
Dive Sites not being appropriate for in-water activities Each of the Open Water dive sites is visited pre-season to ensure suitable depth, that the topography has not been altered in any way that would compromise the safety of each dive site. Any site that represents a high risk to Open Water Students is taken off the list of suitable dive sites and consequently not used. 4 1 LOW NO
Factors increasing risk of accident due to: alcohol, inexperienced divers, medically unfit divers, non-operation of buddy system Ensure that all staff and volunteers are advised to limit drinking alcohol when diving the next day. Staff may tell volunteers not to dive if excessive alcohol has been consumed the night before. Ensure that all divers, irrespective of qualifications and reported experience have been checked by a Love The Oceans’ staff member and a Guinjata Dive Centre staff member. All staff and volunteers to complete a medical questionnaire and appropriate medical advice sought before the expedition should an answer to any of the questions on the questionnaire be positive. All dive procedures to be followed precisely. All accidents and near misses to be reported immediately to the medical officer. Love The Oceans’ staff reserve the right to stop a volunteer diving if they think they are medically unfit, too inexperienced or intoxicated with drugs or alcohol or jeopardizing either the safety of the other divers, the environment or the goal of the surveys 4 2 MEDIUM NO
Control measures not implemented Site Manager to be responsible for auditing the control measures on a regular basis. These audit reports include details of non-compliances and corrective measures to be available for inspection on site 3 1 LOW NO
Seasickness Passengers that suffer from motion sickness advised to bring relevant medication. 1 3 LOW NO
Drowning through equipment malfunction Volunteers taking part must be at least PADI Open Water qualified or the equivalent. Caution must be taken when preparing equipment and must be checked thoroughly. Any equipment that seems to be questionable must be swapped out for a working piece pre-dive. Divers must remain in buddy pairs at all times and no one must enter the water on their own. Someone must always be on the surface observing 4 2 MEDIUM NO
Drowning through running out of air Volunteers taking part must be at least PADI Open Water qualified or the equivalent. Caution must be taken when preparing equipment and air pressure gauge must be checked to have the appropriate amount of air before each dive. Divers must check air consumption regularly and always dive in buddy pairs. Everyone must dive with caution and stay within their limits. If a dive leader knows a nervous diver is diving, they must check them more regularly to ensure they are ok 4 1 LOW NO
Getting stuck or trapped Role call always completed post-dive. Divers must all stay in buddy pairs. Volunteers taking part must be at least PADI Open Water qualified or the equivalent. Everyone must dive with caution and stay within their limits 4 1 LOW NO

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.3 Snorkelling

Identification of reasonable foreseeable hazards Identification of reasonably foreseeable hazards
What are the hazards? What are you already doing? Severity 1-5 Likelihood 1-5 Residual Risk Further Controls Required?

 

Being hit by a boat whilst snorkelling Ensure all staff and volunteers are told they must stay above the dive group at all times. There must be a surface observer present at all times 5 1 LOW NO
Being swept out to sea by offshore currents Ensure that all staff and volunteers are told that if they encounter a strong current to abort the snorkel. Surface observer must be present at all times 3 1 LOW NO
Injuries from dangerous marine animals Ensure that all staff and volunteers are trained in the identification of all marine species likely to be encountered that can cause injury by having a Dangerous Organisms lecture before they do their first snorkels on Love The Oceans’ programs. Ensure that all snorkelers are instructed never to touch the coral or any organism and do not cause an aggressive response from any marine creature by approaching too closely 4 1 LOW NO
Drowning Snorkelers must be able to complete a 400m swim in a swimming pool. All snorkelers must either wear a wetsuit without any weights or a life jacket for positive buoyancy. Surface observer present at all times 5 1 LOW NO
Control measures not implemented Site Manager to be responsible for auditing the control measures on a regular basis. These audit reports must include details of non-compliances and corrective measures to be available for inspection on site 3 1 LOW NO

 

3.4 Fisheries Research

3.4.1 Waiting for catch

Identification of reasonable foreseeable hazards Identification of reasonably foreseeable hazards
What are the hazards? What are you already doing? Severity 1-5 Likelihood 1-5 Residual Risk Further Controls Required?

 

Exposure to cold and wet conditions Work will only be conducted in suitable and safe weather conditions, limiting exposure to hazardous conditions. Appropriate clothing will be worn. 2 2 LOW NO
Lack of energy/fainting Sufficient food and water rations taken with and provided. In an emergency more and aid can be provided as phones are always carried 2 3 LOW NO
Exposure to warm and hot conditions Work will only be conducted in suitable and safe weather conditions. Water and sun protection such as sun cream and hats will be worn. Sufficient water will be carried on all journeys 2 4 MEDIUM NO
Criminal offences Caution taken, travel in at least groups of two at all times. Mobile phones always carried. No valuables left unattended or in clear view 3 1 LOW NO
Control measures not implemented Site Manager responsible to auditing the control measures every season. These audit reports should include details of non-compliances and corrective measures to be available for inspection on site 3 1 LOW NO

 

3.4.2 Data collection

Identification of reasonable foreseeable hazards Identification of reasonably foreseeable hazards
What are the hazards? What are you already doing? Severity 1-5 Likelihood 1-5 Residual Risk Further Controls Required?

 

Bitten by an animal Caution taken, distance kept from living or dying animals. Volunteers will receive a lecture on fisheries, in which dangerous animals will be included. Photos will be in the presentation so volunteers are able to identify which animals to take particular caution when near or handling. Volunteers should try to avoid handing animals even if they are dead. 4 1 LOW NO
Stung by a venomous/poisonous/toxic animal Caution taken, distance kept from dangerous animals. Volunteers will receive a lecture on fisheries, in which dangerous animals will be included. Photos will be in the presentation so volunteers are able to identify which animals to take particular caution when near or handling. Volunteers should try to avoid handing animals even if they are dead. 4 1 LOW NO
Infection from handling organisms Open wounds covered at all times. Caution taken and appropriate first aid available on site. 2 3 LOW NO
Cuts and abrasions Caution taken and appropriate first aid available on site 4 1 LOW NO
Allergies and Asthma First aid and local medical facilities available. Volunteers should carry relevant medication to any medical conditions they have at all times. Mobile phones carried so staff can be reached in an emergency 4 2 MEDIUM NO
Control measures not implemented Site Manager responsible to auditing the control measures every season. These audit reports should include details of non-compliances and corrective measures to be available for inspection on site 3 1 LOW NO

 

3.5 Lab Work

Identification of reasonable foreseeable hazards Identification of reasonably foreseeable hazards
What are the hazards? What are you already doing? Severity 1-5 Likelihood 1-5 Residual Risk Further Controls Required?

 

Chemical spills Caution taken and protective clothing warn at all times when in the lab 3 3 MEDIUM NO
Cuts and abrasions Always cut samples on a flat, dry, clean surface with the correct equipment. Always pay full attention to what you’re doing and exercise caution. Always have a LTO staff member set up the Buehler Machine. Any sample processing must be supervised by a LTO staff member 3 2 LOW NO
Electrocution Make sure the area you are working in is clear and dry. Wear rubber soled shoes when using the Buehler machine. A LTO member of staff should be present at all times when the Buehler machine is in use 4 2 MEDIUM NO
Clothes and body parts stuck in moving components Lab coat to be worn when using the Buehler Machine. Long hair to be tied back and dangling jewellery to be taken off. Ensure the safety catch is set to the appropriate level on the Buehler machine and a LTO staff member is present at all times when it is in use 4 1 LOW NO
Chemical irritation to eyes or skin Lab coat and safety goggles to be worn at all times in the lab. Long hair to be tied back. Plastic gloves must be worn when handling chemicals. Covered shoes must be worn 4 1 LOW NO
Ingestion of poisonous chemicals Plastic gloves and lab coat to be removed when exiting the lab. Hands washed thoroughly after lab work. No food or drink consumed in the lab 4 1 LOW NO
Control measures not implemented Site Manager responsible to auditing the control measures every season. These audit reports should include details of non-compliances and corrective measures to be available for inspection on site 3 1 LOW NO

 

3.6 School Painting and Teaching

Identification of reasonable foreseeable hazards Identification of reasonably foreseeable hazards
What are the hazards? What are you already doing? Severity 1-5 Likelihood 1-5 Residual Risk Further Controls Required?

 

Contagious diseases Advised pre-expedition to get the relevant vaccinations. Do not approach people with airborne contagious diseases. Exercise caution when dealing with someone with a contagious disease. First aid available and in the case of disease contraction the medical evacuation protocol will be followed and site manager or other senior LTO staff on site will take control 4 1 LOW NO
Falling off ladders or scaffolding Ladders only used when needed. Caution taken. Someone should always be at the bottom of the ladder holding it steady. Volunteers should refrain from climbing on scaffolding. Volunteers should ask a member of LTO staff before ascending a ladder to check the safety of it 4 2 MEDIUM NO
Paint fumes/dust inhalation Work completed in areas with good ventilation. No-one should be exposed to fumes or dust for a long period  and if it is known fumes or dust will be concentrated in the area appropriate masks should be worn to protect airways 3 2 LOW NO
Things falling from a height Never walk under anything that has the potential to fall. Always exercise caution when around local buildings not LTO health and safety approved. If a volunteer thinks a building is unsafe they should not enter it. Mobile phones will always be present and a LTO member of staff should come to inspect the building 4 1 LOW NO
Use of machine/equipment Caution taken, volunteers should only use equipment that they have been taught how to use by LTO staff members. Volunteers should not get involved with the building or plastering of the classrooms, volunteers should only participate in teaching and painting activities at the local schools 3 2 LOW NO
Cuts and infection Caution taken. First aid kit available and local medical facilities easily within a short car journey. Mobile phones to be carried at all times and LTO staff alerted to the situation. Appropriate clothing and footwear to be worn at all times 3 3 MEDIUM NO
Criminal activity Caution taken, always remain in groups of 2 or more. Mobile phones should always be carried. Volunteers should refrain from taking any valuables except mobile phones to the local school sites. No valuables to be left in plain view or left unattended 3 1 LOW NO
Sun burn/heat stroke Caution taken, protective clothing, sun cream and sufficient clean water supplied 3 3 MEDIUM NO
Exposure to cold and wet conditions Work will only be conducted in suitable weather conditions, limiting exposure to hazardous conditions. Appropriate clothing will be worn if needed 2 2 LOW NO
Lack of energy/fainting Sufficient food and water rations provided and taken to the school sites by volunteers. In an emergency more aid can be provided as mobile phones should always be carried. Medical and evacuation procedures should be followed if the situations becomes critical 2 3 LOW NO
Control measures not implemented Site Manager responsible to auditing the control measures every season. These audit reports should include details of non-compliances and corrective measures to be available for inspection on site 3 1 LOW NO

 

3.7 Emergency Treatment and Evacuation

Identification of reasonable foreseeable hazards Identification of reasonably foreseeable hazards
What are the hazards? What are you already doing? Severity 1-5 Likelihood 1-5 Residual Risk Further Controls Required?

 

Insufficient communication facilities There is a dedicated mobile phone for each activity which is to be used in the case of an emergency only. Each volunteer should also have a working mobile phone as everyone is instructed to network unlock their phone pre-departure. At the Paindane fisheries site there is Paindane resort and near by local residents who will be able to contact someone back at base. Paindane fishery site is a 45minute walk from main site.

At the schools our translator will be with the volunteers at all times apart from his lunch hour and will be able to contact other LTO staff if needed. There are also teachers present able to contact LTO staff.

There is a radio on each dive boat which will be able to contact the dive centre on survey dives if need be. The skipper also always carries a mobile phone on the boat.

All LTO staff have the emergency in-country telephone numbers as well as the South African hospital telephone numbers and LTO UK office number.

If these lines of communication failed there are cars on standby in Guinjata

4 1 LOW NO
Injury or illness requiring local treatment All LTO staff are first aid trained and have access to our remote medical officer via phone. There are local medical facilities within a 10 minute drive from Guinjata and Inhambane’s main hospital is 45 mins drive.

Each volunteer should have their own dive, medical and travel insurance and should have provided LTO with a copy by their departure date. Therefore further medical assistance will be available through these lines if necessary

2 2 LOW NO
Diver with decompression sickness requiring a recompression chamber The nearest recompression chamber is in Durban. Evacuation from Guinjata would be via medevac plane and the flight time from Inhambane to Durban is no more than 4 hours. Love The Oceans operates very strict safety procedures. . Limit dives to 3 shallow ones per day, minimum 2 hour surface interval, maximum depth 18m for survey dives and maximum 30m for recreational deep dives. Only one deep dive a day allowed even on weekends and only for advanced divers or divers doing their advanced qualification. Maximum dive time of 50 minutes with a 5 minute stop at 5m before surfacing.

Ensure that the dive procedures are audited every season. Ensure that all boats carry oxygen supplies and that there are sufficient oxygen supplies in Guinjata to continue treating the patient throughout the period of evacuation. Ensure that there is a qualified staff member who can administer oxygen. Ensure evacuation plans are in position for getting patient to recompression facilities and that all relevant staff are aware of procedures

5 1 LOW NO
Non-life-threatening injury or illness Any non-life-threatening illnesses can be taken to Inhambane hospital for consultation and further treatment if deemed necessary 3 1 LOW NO
Critical injury or illness requiring evacuation Detailed evacuation plans have been prepared – see medical and evacuation procedure 5 1 LOW NO
Control measures not implemented Site Manager responsible to auditing the control measures every season. These audit reports should include details of non-compliances and corrective measures to be available for inspection on site 3 1 LOW NO

 

  1. OPTIONAL EXTRA ACTIVITIES RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT

4.1 Surf trip

Identification of reasonable foreseeable hazards Identification of reasonably foreseeable hazards
What are the hazards? What are you already doing? Severity 1-5 Likelihood 1-5 Residual Risk Further Controls Required?

 

Drowning All taking part must be able to swim. Caution taken, no one enters the water alone. Role call always completed before and after any activity. A surf instructor or LTO staff member will always be observing 4 2 MEDIUM NO
Getting swept out to sea All taking part must be able to swim. Always in at least groups of 2. Stay within the boundaries set by the surf instructor or LTO staff member and follow their instructions. Role call always completed before and after any activity 4 2 MEDIUM NO
Animal stings or bites Caution taken and distance kept from dangerous animals. Always follow the surf instructor or LTO staff member instructions 4 1 LOW NO
Collision with rocks/other people Enter water where instructed by surf staff, LTO staff or Guinjata Dive Centre staff. Be aware of other surfers/swimmers and where the shallow rocks are. If falling off the board adopt the head protecting position demonstrated and instructed by the surf instructor or LTO staff member. First aid kit available 4 2 MEDIUM NO
Cuts and scrapes Caution taken when entering the water. Do not attempt waves that are out of your comfort zone. 4 2 MEDIUM NO
Control measures not implemented Site Manager responsible to auditing the control measures every season. These audit reports should include details of non-compliances and corrective measures to be available for inspection on site 3 1 LOW NO

 

4.2 Yacht/Dhow Trip

Identification of reasonable foreseeable hazards Identification of reasonably foreseeable hazards
What are the hazards? What are you already doing? Severity 1-5 Likelihood 1-5 Residual Risk Further Controls Required?

 

Drowning All taking part must be able to swim. Caution taken, no one enters the water alone. Role call always completed before and after any activity. A LTO staff member will always be observing 4 2 MEDIUM NO
Slipping No running on deck. Stow bags in cabin. Keep deck clear of obstacles 2 4 LOW NO
Animal stings/bites Caution taken, distance kept from dangerous animals, follow the instruction of the boat captain or LTO staff member 4 1 LOW NO
Body parts trapped in moving parts Do not touch the boat equipment or help with any manoeuvres unless asked to do so and instructed by the captain 4 2 MEDIUM NO
Drinking related accidents All taking part must be aged 18 or over. Do not drink excessively and volunteers and staff must abide by our code of conduct alcohol policies 4 3 MEDIUM NO
Falling overboard Caution taken, never run or hang off the boat whilst moving. Stay the correct side of the barriers and follow the boat captain’s instructions or that of a LTO staff member 3 2 LOW NO
Sea sickness Passengers that suffer from motion sickness advised to bring relevant medication. 1 3 LOW NO

 

  1. DANGEROUS ANIMALS RISK ASSESSEMENT AND MANAGEMENT
Identification of reasonable foreseeable hazards Identification of reasonably foreseeable hazards
What are the hazards? What are you already doing? Severity 1-5 Likelihood 1-5 Residual Risk Further Controls Required?

 

Anaphylactic shock resulting in death A bite or sting from any toxic animal, even those that would not normally be dangerous, can cause anaphylactic shock. Roughly 10% of the population is considered ‘at risk’ from anaphylactic shock. As many as one in one hundred cases of anaphylactic shock can result in death where treatment is not administered quickly. On the first day of training volunteers are given a lecture on the dangerous animals found in the area and are told not to handle them or aggravate them.

All volunteers and staff are told to wear appropriate footwear at all times. All staff are briefed fully on how to identify anaphylactic shock and how to treat it if necessary. Supplies for adrenaline and oxygen are carried on all boats and are held at the Guinjata Medical Centre. Although the likelihood of a life threatening anaphylactic shock occurring is very small, we consider it to be the most serious risk posed by marine animals

5 1 LOW NO
Being stung by a cone shell There are a few different species of cone shell seen on the reefs in Mozambique although they are not common. They have a barb-like dart within their shell that if fired when aggravated by being picked up or stepped on may cause death or serious injury. There is no specific medical treatment. Within the first day on program all volunteers and staff are given a lecture on the dangerous organisms present in Mozambique and the cone shell is one of these. Photographs are included in the presentation so students are aware of what they look like and they are also discussed in the mandatory coral reef lectures and pointed out to students if seen on the reef. All volunteers and staff are told never to touch marine life. 5 1 LOW NO
Being stung by a Blue Bottle Portuguese Man ‘O’War These ‘jelly-fish’ are uncommon in Mozambique but still can appear. They may sting students whilst snorkelling, swimming or diving and may cause serious pain or result in anaphylactic shock (see above). If a Portuguese Man ‘O’ War is spotted all water activities are stopped 3 1 LOW NO
Being stung by a stonefish, scorpionfish or other venomous fish Stonefish and scorpionfish are present in relatively high numbers in Mozambique. Along the back of stonefish are 13 spines which if touched penetrate the skin of the victim and inject venom causing serious pain, injury and occasionally death. The likelihood of a sting proving fatal is very low. Within the first day of the program volunteers are given a lecture on dangerous animals present in Mozambique which the stonefish is one. It is made very clear that a bite from this animal can be deadly, especially since there are limited medical facilities locally that could deal with this injury. Photographs are included in this presentation so that students are aware of what they look like and they are also discussed in the mandatory coral reef lectures. Laminated instructions on how to deal with stings are displayed in the volunteers’ house, dive centre and medical centre. Volunteers and staff are told not to walk in the shallows without booties on and should not go in the shallows or swim at night. 5 1 LOW NO
Being stung by a stingray Blue spotted stingrays are seen regularly in Mozambique waters. They have a bony spine on their tail that contains venom capable of causing severe pain and potentially resulting in death if pierced the abdomen or heart.

Within the first day of the program volunteers are given a lecture on dangerous animals present in Mozambique which the stingray is one. It is made very clear that a bite from this animal can be deadly, especially since there are limited medical facilities locally that could deal with this injury. Photographs are included in this presentation so that students are aware of what they look like and they are also discussed in the mandatory coral reef lectures. Laminated instructions on how to deal with stings are displayed in the volunteers’ house, dive centre and medical centre. Volunteers and staff are told not to walk in the shallows without booties on and should not go in the shallows or swim at night.

The likelihood s sting proves fatal is incredibly small as a major organ would need to be pierced

5 1 LOW NO
Being bitten by a shark Sharks are fairly common in Mozambique and are fished a lot by artisanal longliners. However, the chances of a shark biting a diver or snorkeler is extremely low. Volunteers and staff are told not to approach or chase the sharks and not to aggravate it or provoke it. If there are sharks feeding on a baited longline near a dive site, we will change dive sites for that dive.

All staff have first aid qualifications and are trained in the event of a shark bite. Local medical facilities are easily accessible. Death from a shark bite is extremely uncommon as the shark would need to bite a major artery or pierce a major organ

5 1 LOW NO
Snake bite Volunteers and staff are advised to wear appropriate footwear at all times and avoid unpopulated areas with heavy undergrowth. No volunteer or staff member should approach a snake unless they are an approved snake handler. Night time activities are confined to well lit, populated areas – no abandoned buildings or areas should be approached after dark. If a dangerous snake is seen it should be removed by an approved snake handler. The most venomous snake at both our Mozambique and our South Africa safari site is the Black Mumba and patients should be treated with the anti-venom as soon as it is appropriate to do so. The Love The Oceans’ medical evacuation procedure should be followed in the case of a serious snake bite.

If bitten the patient should be immobilised and the spread of the toxin slowed by bandaging. The main site should be informed by radio or mobile phone. The site manager or other senior Love The Oceans member of staff should be informed so they are aware of the patient’s arrival and can make arrangements for their arrival in Inhambane, Maputo or Nelspruit.

5 1 LOW NO
Dog bite There are domestic dogs that live in Mozambique. Any volunteer or staff member bitten by a dog is to receive a booster rabies injection in Inhambane or Maputo 3 1 LOW NO
Small mammal or bat bite Any volunteer or staff member bitten by a bat or small mammal is to be evacuated to Inhambane or Maputo where they will receive booster rabies injections 4 1 LOW NO
Bees and ants Volunteers should avoid any major hives or nests 3 1 LOW NO
Scorpions Volunteers and staff should wear appropriate footwear at all times and should not approach or touch scorpions. Participants should check clothes, beds, shoes and wetsuits before putting them on 3 1 LOW NO
Spider bite/sting Black Widows and Huntsman spiders are fairly common in Mozambique. In the first day of training volunteers are given a lecture on dangerous animals, of which spiders are one of them. Photos are included in the presentation so volunteers could identify one. If a spider is seen in any of the living areas or dive centre volunteers must inform staff immediately who will work out exactly how to deal with the spiders. Volunteers should not touch, approach or aggravate any spiders. Death from spider bites or stings is unusual but not unheard of and local medical treatment is available in the event of a spider bite or sting. 4 1 LOW NO
Malaria or Dengue fever Ensure that all staff and volunteers are told in advance to bring adequate supplies of malaria medication and that they start taking them before joining the expedition. All staff and volunteers to be informed that anti malaria medication is only partially effective against malaria and totally ineffective against Dengue Fever and that the first line of defence should be to cover up, wear insect repellent and sleep under a mosquito net.

Mosquito nets are provided for all volunteers and staff.

3 2 LOW NO
Zika Virus All expedition participants will be given information on the symptoms to look out for related to Zika. All expedition participants should cover up to reduce the chances of being

bitten. Participants to be briefed on the extra precautions related to zika for example no unprotected sex for 8 weeks after leaving an infected country

3 1 LOW NO
Control measures not implemented Site Manager responsible to auditing the control measures every season. These audit reports should include details of non-compliances and corrective measures to be available for inspection on site 3 1 LOW NO